The Substation is a part of electrical Power System. That is the part of an electrical generation, transmission and distribution system. It is regarded as the source of energy supply for the local areas of distribution in which these are located. The main function is to receive energy transmitted at high voltage form the generating station, reduce the voltage to appropriate for local distribution and provide facilities for switching.
Some substations are simply switching stations where different connections between various transmission lines are made, others are converting substations which either convert ac into dc or vice versa or convert frequency from higher to lower or vice versa.
Substations have some additional functions. They provide points where safety devices may be installed to disconnect equipment or circuit in the event of fault. Voltage on the outgoing distribution feeders can be regulated at a substation.
A substations is convenient place for installing synchronous condensers at the end of the transmission line for the purposes of improving power factor and make measurements to check the operation of the various parts of the power system.
Street lightning equipment as well as switching controls for street lights can be installed in a substations.
Classification Substations : Duties; Service Rendered; Operating Voltage; Importance; Design
Substation can be classified on the basis of following:
- Nature of Duties
2. Service Rendered
3. Operating Voltage
i. High Voltage Substations (HV Substations)
ii. Extra High Voltage Substations (EHV Substations)
iii. Ultra High Voltage Substations (UHV Substations)
ii. Town Substations
i. Indoor Type Substations
ii. Outdoor Type Substations
These substations are further subdivided into :
(a) Pole Mounted Substations
(b) Foundation Mounted Substations
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