The electrical energy is normally generated at the power station far away from the urban areas, where consumers are located, and delivered to the ultimate consumers through a network of transmission and distribution.
For satisfactory operation of load it is required constant voltage at the consumer terminal.
The main causes responsible for voltage variation is the variation in load on the supply system.
Increase in load on the supply system the voltage at the consumer premises falls due to in increase in voltage drops in alternators synchronous impedance, transmission line, transformer impedance, feeders and distribution.
Need for Voltage Control
- Insulation break down on the power line, terminal equipment which causes harmful effect in the system.
- Insulation damage of utility equipment.
- Damage of equipment sensitive to voltage like TV, radio, computer e.t.c.
- To operate satisfactorily the consumer’s apparatus.
Causes of Voltage Variation:
- Internal Causes – Variation of load in the system
- External Causes – Lighting stroke (direct and indirect stroke )
Method of Voltage Control
- Excitation control and Voltage regulators in generating station
- Use of tap changing transformers at sending end and receiving end of transmission lines, in factories, substations, distribution substations and transmission substations.
- Use of booster transformers.
- use of induction regulators.
- Use of series capacitors in ling EHV transmission lines.
- Switching in shunt reactor during light loads or while energizing line EHV lines.
- Use of static shunt compensation having shunt capacitors and transistorized control for step less ccontrol of reactive power and voltage.
- Use of synchronous condensers.
- Switching in shunt capacitors during high load or low power factor load.
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